Graphene Photo

Video Samples

Common observations and parameters used
Force of gravity on earth
Screen Width: Kilometer (10^3m)
Time Unit: 10 per second
Earth/Moon system
Screen Width: millionkm (10^9m)
Time Unit: about hours (10^4s)
Tracking Plutos orbit
Screen Width: billionkm (10^12m)
Time Unit: 1-2 months (10^6s)

Very small observations
A Neutron or Proton
as a spinning bloch sphere
Screen Width: Angstroms 10^-10m
Time Unit: Zeptosecs 10^-21s
An Electron
as a Dirac Spinor
Screen Width: 10Femto 10^-14m
Time Unit: Yoctosecs 10^-24s
Photon transmission
as a periodic bubble
Screen Width: Micrometers 10^-6m
Time Unit: Attosecs 10^-18s
Electron/Proton attraction
under Coulomb's law
Screen Width: Angstroms 10^-10m
Time Unit: Attosecs 10^-18s
Electron transmission through
Scanning Tunnelling Microscope
Screen Width: Nanometers 10^-9m
Time Unit: Nanosecs 10^-9s
Photoemission, the ejection of an electron from a material on the absorption of a photon.
Helium, experiment and calculation
Screen Width: Angstroms (10¯¹⁰m)
Time Unit: Attosecond (10¯¹⁸s)

Conversion Factors
10¯² Centi
10¯³ Milli
10¯⁶ Micro
10¯⁹ Nano
10¯10 Angstrom
10¯¹² Pico
10¯¹⁵ Femto
10¯¹⁸ Atto
10¯²¹ Zepto
10¯²⁴ Yocto

10³ Kilo
10⁶ Mega
10⁹ Giga
10¹² Tera
10¹⁵ Peta
10¹⁸ Exa
10²¹ Zelta
10²⁴ Yolta

The Forces of Animated Physics
Crab Nebula
Graphene Photo
Cloud Chamber
  DNA Molecule
and More

The fundamental interactions of Animated Physics

1.   The Strong Interaction
2.   Electro-Magnetism
3.   The Weak Interaction
4.   Gravity

1.   The Strong Interaction

  • Holds quarks together to form Protons and Neutrons
  • Holds Protons and Neutrons together to form Elements (called the nuclear force that is 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force)

The internal structure of the proton or neutron is made up of three quark layers. All baryons including the proton and neutron consist of three quarks. Mesons are made up of two quarks and are created in high speed collisions between baryons.

Elements are made from layers of proton shells separated with neutron shells (some extra neutron shells may exist). The name and charge of the element is determined by the number of protons. The mass of the element is determined by the total number of protons and neutrons.

2.   Electro-Magnetism

  • Causes the interaction between electrically charged particles and holds electrons and protons together
  • Governs the processes of Chemistry which arise from the interaction of the electrons

Electrons are attracted to a proton as free electrons under coulomb's law until they are close to a proton where they become trapped in orbitals of a specific energy level through the emission of a photon. This trapping of electrons in orbitals provides the structure to build bigger and more complex molecules. The properties of solids and liquids are determined by the structural layout of the electrons and elements.

Magnetism has a significant effect on electrons both in their motion through space and in the electrons orientation in space. In this way, electrons can be accelerated and directed to form television images.

3.   The Weak Interaction

  • Governed by Gauge Bosons (photons, w/z boson & gluons)
  • 10 with 11 zeros after it times weaker then electromagnetism
  • Governs flavor change - ie up quark to down quark in beta decay where a Neutron decays into a Proton, Electron and anti-Neutrino

Energy in the form of photons or gamma rays can emit from a particle when the particle undergoes specific changes. Particles can be transformed and new ones created through instability in a particle.

4.   Gravity

  • Approximated by Newtons universal laws
  • Adjusted for the fixed speed of light using Einsteins General Relativity
  • Controls the creation of black holes

The Kerr metric examines the collapse of energy into a spinning black hole. The collapse of energy in three dimensions ensures that there is at least one stable size for the neutron.

The collapse of very dense energy into neutrons occurred after the inflationary period of the big bang and allowed the universe to aggregate into matter. The decay of neutrons into protons and electrons allowed matter to form the structure we see today. More..