Particles of the Standard Model
Gauge Bosons • Leptons • Quarks and Gluons • Photons

Gauge Bosons - The Higgs

Hermann von Helmholtz (ca. 1821–1894) was a German physician and physicist who studied fluid dynamics. Specifically, Helmholtz studied vortexes in fluids discovered "A vortex filament cannot end in a fluid; it must extend to the boundaries of the fluid or form a closed path."

In addition, Helmholtz’s theorem of vector calculus states that any vortex in three dimensions can be resolved into the sum of an irrotational and a solenoidal (horizontal and vertical) component; known as the Helmholtz decomposition.

In the mathematics of group theory, the orthogonal O(3) and the special orthogonal SO(3) groupings to classify vortexes in 3D. Imagine using a computer drawing program. Some drawings look the same after a “flip” as they do after a “rotate 180”. This is the O(3) group including the Higgs and the Z-boson. But some drawings do not look the same, in fact they look "backwards". This is the SO(3) group including the W+ and the W- bosons.

Vortex Formation

Depends on the "connectedness" of space at the Planck level.

Higgs Boson

Mass: ~125 Gev
Charge: 0
Spin: 0
Lifetime: ~1.6×10‾²² seconds
O(3) group, same in mirror

Higgs decay

23.3% chance of decaying into a W+ and W- pair
2.9% chance of decaying into a up and down Z boson pair
Preserves spin and charge

Z Boson

Mass: ~91 Gev
Charge: 0
Spin: 1
O(3) group, same in mirror

W+ Boson

Mass: ~80 Gev
Charge:+1, Spin: 1
Lifetime: ~3 x 10‾²⁵ seconds
Orientation: righthanded
SO(3) group, mirror image is anti-particle

W- Boson

Mass: ~80 Gev
Charge: -1, Spin: 1
Lifetime: ~3 x 10‾²⁵ seconds
Orientation: lefthanded
SO(3) group, mirror image is anti-particle

It is important to note what happens when these particles interact with other matter. Both the W and Z bosons, being spin 1 particles, change the direction of spin of other particles they hit. A spin up electron (+1/2) will become a down electron (-1/2). The W bosons having a +1 or -1 charge, will change the charge of particles they hit. A +1/3 charge quark will be changed to a -2/3 charged quark if hit by a W- boson.

Hadrons - Quarks and Gluons, Mesons, Baryons, Protons and Neutrons

Joseph Larmor (ca. 1857–1942) was a physicist and mathematician who made substantial contributions to the view of matter as spinning vortexes. Where mass is involved, Larmor laid the groundwork for mathematically modelling the concepts of spin, precession and coupling for nucleons. Coupling the up or down energy states of multiple spin 1/2 particles allows for mathematical modelling of more complex particle spin. One spin 1/2 particle will go either up or down when sent through a magnetic field. Two spin 1/2 particles coupled together (spin 1) can go in three different directions. Three spin 1/2 particles coupled together (spin 3/2) will form 4 beamlets.

Quarks are large empty 3D spinning spherical shells having an inside and an outside. Quarks colored blue symbolize a +2/3 charge (up) and red symbolizes a -1/3 charge (down). When layered, these spheres make up Mesons and Baryons. Mesons have two layers of quark shells, Baryons have three layers. Quark shells are able to stack or layer together through of gluons. Gluons act as “taps” or “poles” that allow energy to flow in or out of layers. Quarks coupled through Gluons make up an SU(3) group with three properties: magnetic up or down; spin left handed or right handed; and, flow in or out.

Protons (up/up/down) and Neutrons (down/up/down) are both three layered quarks called Baryons.

Higgs decay to Quarks

Most common decay product of the Higgs
Decays to bottom/anti-bottom quark pair
Blue = +2/3 charge quark
Red = -1/3 charge quark

Bottom eta meson

Mass: 9.2 Gev
Charge: 0
Spin: 0
Contains bottom quark and anti-bottom quark

Focus on Gluon

Mass: 0 Mev
Charge: 0
Spin: 1

Creation of W+ from a Quark
Charmed B+ Quark

Mass: 6.3 Gev
Charge: +1
Spin: 0
Contains charm quark and anti-bottom quark

In the same way that layered quarks make up Protons and Neutrons, layered Protons and Neutrons make up all the elements.

Leptons - Electrons and Positrons

An electron contains a tiny mass, a strong electrical charge, and a large (relative to other particles) magnetic moment. In an electron, a strong electrical current has trapped an orthogonal magnetic field. One spin around the electrical loop is only 1/2 a spin around the magnetic field. A double spin of 720° is required to return the electron to its original orientation. An electron is a common decay element of a W- boson. The positron is a common decay element of the W+ boson.

The mathematical modelling of the electron began in 1922. German physicists Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach shot electrons through a magnetic field and found that half the electrons went up a bit, half the electrons went down a bit and none stayed straight. This clearly demonstrates the principle of spin and that any model of an electron has to have an up and a down state.

Physicist Paul Dirac (ca. 1902–1984) represented particles in very new ways. He derived the “Dirac Electron” from earlier wave equations. Dirac modelled the electron mathematically as two interacting wave equations. He demonstrated the concept of mass as trapped energy. The model allowed Dirac to derive the mass of the electron and predict the existence of anti-matter. Dirac’s one equation for a massive particle can be rewritten as two equations for two interacting massless particles, where the Dirac spinor ψ, with its 4 complex components, can be represented, as a pair of 2-spinors with a ‘coupling constant’ M describing the strength of the ‘interaction’ between the two.


Mass: 0.511 Mev
Charge: -1
Spin: 1/2 with 2 states
Orientation: Left-handed
Magnetic moment: −1.001 μB
SO(3) group, mirror image is anti-particle

Positron (anti-electron)

Mass: 0.511 Mev
Spin: 1/2 with 2 states
Orientation: Right-handed
Magnetic moment: −1.001 μB
SO(3) group, mirror image is anti-particle

The electron is very stable. The electron has two heavier unstable cousins discovered so far. Both the Muon and the Tau have the same charge, spin, similar magnetic moments and decay into electrons. The Muon has mass of 106 MeV. The Muon first decays to a W- by expelling a Muon Neutrino, then the W- decays to an Electron by expelling an Electron Neutrino. The Tau with a mass of 1,777 MeV decays in a similar manner but this time through two W- bosons rather then just one.

Color scheme indicating charge:

    Red -1, Left-handed
    Grey 0
    Blue +1, Right-handed